Our research is pursued in a way that will be maximally productive in advancing understanding of human behaviour in law-related activities and in ways most likely to convince lawmakers and legal practitioners to seek out and apply for the information. Due to this reason, we currently prioritize publishing our research in national peer-reviewed medical and legal journals. 

Recent publications in peer-reviewed journals:


Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., Heinimaa, M. & Solomon, R. (submitted). EMDR-terapian käyttö läheisen menetyksestä aiheutuneen komplisoituneen surun hoidossa (engl. Use of EMDR therapy to treat complicated grief caused by the loss of a next of kin).  

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. & Nyholm, J-O. (2019, submitted). Psycholegal witness preparation for in-court oral hearing.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. & Häkli, E. (2019, in press). Oikeusviranomaisten ja psykoterapeuttien näkemykset traumatisoitumisesta ja sen vaikutuksista henkilötodisteluun (engl. The perceptions of judges, prosecutors and psychotherapists on trauma and it's effect on in-court oral hearing). Defensor Legis.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2019, in press). Bruce Springsteen fan behavior and identification. Psychology in Music.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. & Salo, V. (2019). Miten vainoamisesta tuomitaan: oikeuskäytäntö Suomessa vuosina 2015-2016 (engl. stalking sentences in the Finnish Court in 2015-2016). Defensor Legis, 3.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2018). Oikeuspsykologian sovelluskohteiden historiaa (engl. The history of applying forensic psychology to law). Defensor Legis, 2, 183-193. 

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H (2017). Oikeusprosessi ja stressi: mitä lääkärin tulee tietää (engl. legal process and stress: information for doctors). Katsaus. Duodecim, 133, 24, 2351-6.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2017). Asianosaisen ja todistajan oikeuspsykologinen valmistelu oikeudenistuntoon tai välimiesmenettelyyn (engl. preparing plaintiffs', accused and witnesses for court). Defensor Legis 1, 118-131. Asiantuntija-artikkeli.

Previous publications in peer-reviewed journals:

Saukkonen, S., Laajasalo, T., Jokela, M. Kivivuori, J., Salmi, V., & Aronen, E. (2016). Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. European Child & Adolescent  Psychiatry, 25(2):183-91.

Auvinen-Lintunen, L., Häkkänen- Nyholm, H., Ilonen, T., & Tikkanen, R. (2015). Sex differences in homicidal fantasies among Finnish university students. Psychology, 6, 39-47.

Korkman, J. Laajasalo, T. Juusola, A. Uusivuori, L. & Santtila, P. (2015). What did the child tell? The accuracy of parents’ reports of a child’s statements when suspecting child sexual abuse. Journal of Forensic Psychology, 15(2), 93-113.

Backman, H. Laajasalo, T. Saukkonen, S., Salmi, V., Kivivuori, J. & Aronen. E (2015). Are qualitative and quantitative sleep problems associated with delinquency when controlling for psychopathic features and parental supervision? Journal of Sleep Research, 24(5), 543-548.

O’Toole, M. E., Folino, J., Garbarino, J., Gorelick, S. M., Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., Meloy, R., Samenow, S. E., Nishimura, Y. S. (2014). Why Do Young Males Attack Schools? Seven Discipline Leaders Share Their Perspectives. Violence and Gender, 1(1), 13-18.

Laajasalo, T., Saukkonen, S., & Aronen, E. (2014). Kylmä ja tunteeton: onko lapsialla psykopatiapiirteitä? (engl. Cold and unemotiona, does a child have psychopathic features?). Katsaus. Duodecim, 130, 1165-1172

Laajasalo, T., Aronen, E., Saarinen, S., Salmi, V., Aaltonen, M. & Kivivuori, J. (2014). To tell or not to tell? Psychopathic Traits and Response Integrity in Youth Delinquency Surveys. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 26(2), 81-93.

Laajasalo T., Saukkonen S., Kivivuori J., Salmi V., Lipsanen, J. & Aronen E. (2014). Brief report: Self- reported psychopathic-like features among Finnish community youth: Investigation of the factor structure of the Antisocial Personality Screening Device. Journal of Adolescence, 37, 1185-8.

Laajasalo T., Ylipekka M. & Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2013). Homicidal behaviour among people with avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive (Cluster C) personality disorder. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 23, 18-29.

Weizmann-Henelius, G., Grönroos, M., Putkonen, H., Lindberg, N., Eronen, M. & Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2012). Gender Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide – A Nationwide Register-based Study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27, 1519-1539.

Korkman, J., Laajasalo, T., Finnilä, K., Oksanen, M., Aronen, E. (2012). Lapsen seksuaalisen hyväksikäyttöepäilyn selvittäminen (engl. Investigating child sexual abuse). Katsaus. Suomen Lääkärilehti, 20, 1581 – 1587.

Laajasalo, T., Salenius, S., Lindberg, N., Repo-Tiihonen, E. & Häkkänen-Nyholm, N. (2011). Psychopathic Traits in Finnish Homicide Offenders with Schizophrenia. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 34, 324-330.

Putkonen, H., Weizmann-Henelius, G., Lindberg, N., Rovamo, T., & Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2011). Gender differences in homicide offender’s criminal career, substance abuse and mental health care. A nationwide register-based study of Finnish homicide offenders 1995-2004. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21, 51-62.

Auvinen-Lintunen, L., Punamäki, R-L., Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2010-2011). Mental imagery among young violent offenders: Vividness and controllability. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 30(4), 389-406.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2010). Lapsen vieraannuttaminen vanhemmasta erotilanteessa (engl. parental alienation). Katsaus. Duodecim, 26, 499-505.

Weizmann-Henelius, G., Grönroos, M., Putkonen, H., Eronen, M., Lindberg, Nina.,& Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., (2010). Psychopathy and gender differences in childhood psychosocial characteristics in homicide offenders – a nationwide register-based study. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 21(6), 801– 814.

Weizmann-Henelius, G., Putkonen, H., Grönroos, M., Lindberg, N., Eronen, E., & Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2010). Examination of Psychopathy in Female Homicide Offenders – Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PCL-R. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 33(3):177-83.

Putkonen, H., Weizmann-Henelius, G., Repo-Tiihonen, E., Lindberg, N., Saarela, T., Eronen, M., & Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2010). Homicide, Psychopathy and Aging – A nationwide registerbased case- comparison study of homicide offenders aged 60 years or older. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 12, 1552- 1556.

Björklund, K., Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., Huttunen, T. & Kunttu, K. (2010). Violence victimization among Finnish university students: prevalence, symptoms and health care usage. Social Science & Medicine, 70(9), 1416-1422.

Björklund, K., Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., Roberts, K., Sheridan, L. (2010). The prevalence of stalking among Finnish university students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(4), 684-698.

Björkund, K., Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., Sheridan, L., Roberts, K. & Tolvanen, A. (2010). Latent profile approach to duration of stalking. Journal of Forensic Sciences 55(4), 1008-1014.

Björkund, K., Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., Sheridan, L., Roberts, K. (2010). Coping with stalking among university students. Violence and Victims 25(3), 395-408.

Repo-Tiihonen, E., Tiihonen, J., Lindberg, N., Weizmann-Henelius, G., Putkonen, H., & Häkkänen- Nyholm, H. (2010). The Intergenerational Cycle of Criminality – Association with Psychopathy. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55(1), 116-120.

Nyholm, J-O. & Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2009). Psykopaatti asianosaisena prosessioikeudessa (engl. psychopathic individual in a court process). Defensor Legis, 3, 409-420.

Nielssen, O., Bourget, D., Laajasalo T., Liem, M., Labelle, A., Häkkänen, H., Koenraadt, F. & Large. M. (2009). Homicide of strangers by people with a psychotic illness. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37, 572-9.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. & Hare, R.D. (2009). Psychopathy, homicide, and the courts: Working the System. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 36(8), 761-777.

Häkkänen, H., Hurme, K., & Liukkonen. M. (2008). Distance patterns and disposal sites in rural area homicides committed in Finland. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender profiling 4(3), 181-197.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., Weizmann-Henelius, G., Salenius, S., Lindberg, N., & Tiihonen-Repo, E. (2009). Homicides with mutilation of the victim’s body. Journal of Forensic Sciences 54(4), 933-937.

Putkonen, H., Weizmann-Henelius, G., Lindberg, N., Eronen, M., Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2009). Differences between homicide and filicide offenders; results of a nationwide register-based case-control study. BMC Psychiatry, 9:27.

Lindberg, N., Laajasalo, T., Holi, M., Putkonen, H., Weizmann-Henelius, G. & Häkkänen H. (2009). Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents. BMC Psychiatry, 9, 18.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., Repo-Tiihonen, E., Lindberg, N., Salenius, S., Weizmann-Henelius, G. (2009). Finnish sexual homicides: offence and offender characteristics. Forensic Science International, 188, 125- 130.

Häkkänen, H., Ask, K., Kebbell, M., Alison, L., & Granhag, P-A. (2009). Police officers’ views of effective interview tactics with suspects: The effects of weight of case evidence and discomfort with ambiguity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 23, 468-481.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., Putkonen, H., Lindberg, N., Holi, M., Rovamo, T. & Weizmann-Henelius, G. (2009). Gender differences in Finnish homicide offence characteristics. Forensic Science International, 15, 183(1-3) 75-80.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2008). Vainoaminen (engl. stalking). Katsaus. Duodecim, 124, 751-756. 

Putkonen, H., Weizmann-Henelius, G., Lindberg, N., Rovamo, T. & Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2008). Changes over time in homicides by women: a register-based study comparing female offenders from 1982 to 1992 and 1993 to 2005. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 18, 5, 268-278.

Häkkänen, H., Weizmann-Henelius, G., Putkonen, H., & Lauerma, H. (2008). The role of gender in claiming partial or complete homicide-related amnesia. Personality and Individual Differences 45(7), 597- 601.

Häkkänen, H., Hurme, K., & Liukkonen, M. (2008). Distance patterns and disposal sites in rural area homicides committed in Finland. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling 4(3), 181-197.

Hagelstam, C. & Häkkänen, H. (2006). Homicidal adolescents: Offence and offender characteristics. Forensic Science International 164, 110-5.

Laajasalo, T. & Häkkänen, H. (2006). Excessive Violence and Psychotic Symptomatology among Homicide Offenders with Schizophrenia. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 16, 242-253.

Häkkänen, H. (2006). Finnish bomb threats: offence and offender characteristics. International Journal of Police Science and Management 8, 1-8.

Häkkänen H. & Laajasalo, T. (2006). Homicide crime scene actions in a Finnish sample of mentally ill offenders. Homicide Studies, 10, 33-54.

Häkkänen, H. (2005). Finnish homicides by ligature strangulation, 1996-2002. Forensic Science International 152, 61-64.

Laajasalo, T. & Häkkänen, H. (2005). Crime scene actions and offender background characteristics among schizophrenic early- and late-start Finnish homicide offenders. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 16, 41-59.

Laajasalo, T. & Häkkänen, H. (2004). Background characteristics of mentally ill homicide offenders- a comparison of five diagnostic groups. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 15, 451-474.

Häkkänen, H., Lindlöf, P. & Santtila, P. (2004). Crime scene actions and offender characteristics in a sample of Finnish stranger rapes. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling 1, 17-32.

Häkkänen, H., Puolakka, P. & Santtila, P. (2004). Crime scene actions and offender characteristics in arsons. Legal and Criminological Psychology 9, 1-18.

Santtila, P., Korpela, S. & Häkkänen, H. (2004). Expertise and decision-making in linking of car crime series. Psychology, Crime and Law 10, 97-112.

Häkkänen, H., Hagelstam, C., & Santtila, P. (2003). Stalking actions, prior offender-victim relationships and issuing of restraining orders in a Finnish sample of stalkers. Legal and Criminological Psychology 8, 189-206.

Santtila, P., Häkkänen, H. & Fritzon, K. (2003). Inferring the characteristics of an arsonist from crime scene actions: a case study in offender profiling. Journal of Police Science and Management 5, 1-15.

Santtila, P., Häkkänen, H, Canter, D. & Elfgren, T. (2003). Classifying homicide offenders and predicting their characteristics from crime scene behaviour. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 44, 107-118.

Santtila, P., Häkkänen, H., Alison, L. & Whyte, C. (2003). Juvenile Firesetters: Crime scene actions & offender characteristics. Legal and Criminological Psychology 8, 1-20.

Santtila, P., Canter, D., Elfgren, T. & Häkkänen, H. (2001). The structure of crime scene actions in Finnish homicides. Homicide Studies 5, 363-387.

Häkkänen, H., & Summala, H. (2000). Sleepiness at work among commercial truck drivers, Sleep 23, 49- 57.

Häkkänen, H., & Summala, H. (2000). Driver sleepiness-related problems, health status and prolonged driving among professional heavy vehicle drivers. Transportation Human Factors 2, 151-171.

Häkkänen, H., & Summala, H. (2000). Fatal traffic accidents among trailer truck drivers and accident causes as viewed by other truck drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention 33, 187-196.

Summala, H., Häkkänen, H., Mikkola, T. & Sinkkonen, J. (1999). Task effects on fatigue symptoms in overnight driving. Ergonomics 31, 798-806.

Häkkänen, H., Summala, H., Partinen, M., Tiihonen, M. & Silvo, J. (1999). Blink duration as an indicator of driver sleepiness in professional bus drivers. Sleep 22, 798-802.

Edited books and book chapters:

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2018). 100 kysymystä narsismista. Helsinki:

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. & Nyholm, J-O. (2015). 130 kysymystä avioerosta: Psykologin ja lakimiehen opas hyvään eroon. Helsinki:

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. & Nyholm, J-O. (Ed., 2012). Psychopathy and Law: A Practitioners Guide. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2012). Psychopathy in Families: Implications for Clinical Interviews and Civil Proceedings. In Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. & Nyholm, J-O. (Ed.). Psychopathy and Law: A Practitioner’s Guide (pp. 235-259). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

O’Toole, M-E., & Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2012). Psychopathy and Violent Crime. In Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. & Nyholm, J-O. (Ed.). Psychopathy and Law: A Practitioner’s Guide (pp. 139-158). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., Nyholm, J-O. (2012). Psychopathy in Economical Crime, Organized Crime, and War Crimes. In Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. & Nyholm, J-O. (Ed.). Psychopathy and Law: A Practitioner’s Guide (pp. 177-200). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Nyholm, J-O., & Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2012). Interpersonal Aspects and Interviewing Psychopaths.In Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. & Nyholm, J-O. (Ed.). Psychopathy and Law: A Practitioner’s Guide (pp. 261-285). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2010). Stalking. In Granhag, P-A (Ed.). Forensic Psychology in context: Nordic and International approaches. Willan Publishing.

Häkkänen, H. (2010). Stalking. In Brown, J. & Campbell, L. (Ed.). Cambridge Handbook of Forensic Psychology. Cambridge University Press.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (Ed., 2009). Psykopatia. Helsinki: Edita Publishing.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2009). Psykopatia parisuhteessa ja perheessä. Teoksessa Häkkänen- Nyholm, H. (Toim.) Psykopatia (s. 322-340). Helsinki: Edita Publishing.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2009). Psykopatia ja rikollisuus. Teoksessa Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (Toim.) Psykopatia (s. 198-217). Helsinki: Edita Publishing.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. & Nyholm, J-O. (2009). Psykopaatin kuuleminen oikeusprosessissa. Teoksessa Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (Toim.) Psykopatia (s. 218-245). Helsinki: Edita Publishing.

Auvinen-Lintunen, L. & Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2009). Psykopatian arviointi. Teoksessa Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (Toim.) Psykopatia (s. 41-65). Helsinki: Edita Publishing.

Stoat, T. & Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (2009). Psykopatia työelämässä ja yritysmaailmassa. Teoksessa Häkkänen-Nyholm, H. (Toim.) .Psykopatia (s. 295-321). Helsinki: Edita Publishing.

Häkkänen, H. (2008). Psykologia rikostutkinnassa: Tekijäprofilointirikospaikkakäyttäytymisen perusteella. Teoksessa Weizmann-Henelius, G. & Santtila, P. (Toim.) Oikeuspsykologia (s. 86-103). Helsinki: Edita Publishing.

Häkkänen, H. (2008). A study of offence patterns and psychopathological characteristics among recidivistic Finnish homicide offenders. In R. Kocsis (Ed.), The Psychology of Serial Violent Crimes and their Criminal Investigation (pp. 51-62). Totowa NJ: The Humana Press Inc.

Häkkänen, H. (2007). Murders by ligature and manual strangulation: A study of offence patterns, diagnostic groups and offenders. In R. Kocsis (Ed.), Criminal Profiling: International Perspectives in Theory, Practice and Research (pp. 73-88). Totowa NJ: The Humana Press Inc.

Häkkänen, H. (2007) Terrorismin psykologia. Teoksessa Laitinen, K. (Toim.) Terrorismi (s. 37-48). Poliisiammattikorkeakoulu.

Häkkänen, H. (2006). Psykologitieteen sovelluksista henkirikosten esitutkinnassa. Teoksessa Rikostorjunnan etulinjassa. Keskusrikospoliisi 80 vuotta, Keskusrikospoliisi.

Research reports:


Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., Laajasalo, T., & Tuuri, T. (2013). Lapsen vieraannuttaminen vanhemmasta: Toimintatavat ja niiden vaikutus lapsen ja vanhemman hyvinvointiin. Helsinki, PsyJuridica Oy.

Häkkänen-Nyholm, H., & Nyholm, J-O. (2011). Organisational behaviour knowledge as a tool for fighting organised crime. National Bureau of Investigation. Final report for the European Commission.

Stoat, T., & Häkkänen, H. (2008). Väkivaltarikollisten persoonallisuuspiirteiden ja attribuutioiden yhteydet rikosten uusimiseen.. Rikosseuraamusvirasto 2/2008.

Häkkänen, H., Hurme, K., & Liukkonen. M. (2006). Maastoon sijoittuvat henkirikokset: Etäisyyskäyttäytyminen ja tekijöiden piirteet. Keskusrikospoliisin tutkimusraportti.

Stoat, T., Laajasalo, T. & Häkkänen, H. (2005). Tuhopolttajien, raiskaajien ja lähestymiskieltoon määrättyjen henkilöiden uusintarikollisuus. Rikosseuraamusvirasto 2/2005.

Häkkänen, H. (2002). Nuorten henkirikokset. Kesksurikospoliisi, vuosikatsaus.

Tapio, J., Häkkänen, H., Pajunen, K., Kaitanen, S. & Mäkinen T. (2002). Sakkolainsäädännön uudistamisen vaikutukset ylinopeusrangaistuksiin, ajonopeuksiin ja liikenneturvallisuuteen. VTT tutkimuskatsauksia, 2165.

Häkkänen, H., & Tapio, J. (2001). Poliisien mielipiteitä liikenneturvallisuuteen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Sisäasianministeriön poliisiosasto, tutkimusjulkaisu.