Centre for Educational Assessment CEA publishes both in English and Finnish. Here you can find some of our publications in English. Our most recent publications can be found at the Research Portal here.


  • Hotulainen, R.H.E. 2018, Echa News, Reports by National Correspondents of ECHA, Finland.
  • Thuneberg, H. & Salmi, H. 7 toukokuuta 2018. To know or not to know: uncertainty is the answer: Synthesis of six different science exhibition contexts. Julkaisussa: Journal of Science Communication. 17, 2, 28.
  • Oinas, S., Vainikainen, M-P. & Hotulainen, R. joulukuuta 2018. Is technology-enhanced feedback encouraging for all in Finnish basic education: a person-centered approach. Julkaisussa: Learning and Instruction. 58, s. 12-21.
  • Nuutila, K., Tuominen, H., Tapola, A., Vainikainen, M-P. & Niemivirta, M. elokuuta 2018. Consistency, Longitudinal Stability, and Predictions of Elementary School Students’ Task Interest, Success Expectancy, and Performance in Mathematics. Julkaisussa : Learning and Instruction. 56, s. 73-83.
  • Vainikainen, M.-P. 2014. Finnish primary school pupils’ performance in learning to learn assessments: A longitudinal perspective on educational equity


  • Thuneberg, H., Salmi, H. & Fenyvesi, K., Hands-On Math and Art Exhibition Promoting Science Attitudes and Educational Plans,  2017 julkaisussa : Education Research International.
  • Vainikainen, M-P., Hienonen, N. & Hotulainen, R., Class size as a means of three-tiered support in Finnish primary schools, 2017,  julkaisussa : Learning and Individual Differences. 

  • Ahtiainen, R. (2017). Shades of Change in Fullan’s and Hargreaves’s models. Theoretical change perspectives regarding Finnish special education reform. Helsinki studies in education 13. Helsinki: Unigrafia.
  • Hammerness, K., Ahtiainen, R.S. & Sahlberg, P. (2017). Empowered Educators in Finland: How High-Performing Systems Shape Teaching Quality. San Fransisco: Jossey Bass Publishers.
  • Ilmarinen, V.-J., Vainikainen, M.-P., Verkasalo, M., & Lönnqvist, J.-E. (2017). Homophilous friendship assortment based on personality traits and cognitive ability in middle childhood: The moderating effect of peer network size. European Journal of Personality. doi:10.10027per.2095
  • Keller, U., Strobel, A., Wollschläger, R., Greiff, S., Martin, R., Vainikainen, M-P. & Preckel, F. (2017). (painossa). A need for cognition scale for children and adolescents: Structural analysis and measurement invariance. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. doi: 10.1027/1015-5759/a000370
  • Marjanen, J., Vainikainen, M.-P., Kupiainen, S., Hotulainen, R . & Hautamäki, J. (2017). Oppimaan oppiminen Vantaan peruskouluissa: Kolmas-, kuudes- ja yhdeksäsluokkalaiset oppijoina vuosina 2016, 2013 ja 2010 [Learning to learn in Vantaa: The third, sixth and ninth graders as learners in 2016, 2013 and 2010]. Vantaa: Vantaan kaupungin Sivistysvirasto [Education Department of the City of Vantaa].
  • Minkkinen, J., Lindfors, P., Kinnunen, J.M., Finell, E., Vainikainen, M.-P., Karvonen, S., & Rimpelä, A. (2017). (painossa). Health as a predictor of students’ academic achievement: A three-level longitudinal study of Finnish adolescents. Journal of School Health.
  • Oinas, S., Vainikainen, M.-P., & Hotulainen, R. (2017). Technology-enhanced feedback for pupils and parents in Finnish basic education. Computers & Education, 108, 59-70. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2017.01.012
  • van der Ven, A., Hotulainen, R., & Thuneberg, H. (2017). The Probability Distribution of the Response Times in Self-paced Continuous Search Tasks. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 59(1), 3-30.


  • Greiff, S., Wüstenberg, S., Vainikainen, M.‐P., & Murphy, K. (2016). Individual differences in students’ complex problem solving skills: How they evolve and what they imply. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108 (7), 1028-1044. doi:10.1037/edu0000101
  • Hotulainen, R., Mononen, R. & Aunio, P. (2016). Thinking skills intervention for low-achieving first graders. European journal of special needs education.31, 3, p. 360-375.
  • Luong, C., Strobel, A., Wollschläger, R., Greiff, S., Vainikainen, M.-P., & Preckel, F. (2016). Need for cognition in children and adolescents: behavioral correlates and relations to academic achievement and academic potential. Learning and Individual Differences, 53, 103-113. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2016.10.019
  • Salmi, H., Thuneberg, H. & Vainikainen, M.-P. (2016). Learning with dinosaurs: a study on motivation, cognitive reasoning and making observations. International Journal of Science Education, Part B: Communication and Public Engagement. E-pub ahead of print, 16 pages. doi:10.1080/21548455.2016.1200155
  • Salmi, H., Thuneberg, H., & Vainikainen, M-P. (2016). Making the invisible observable by augmented reality in informal science education context. International Journal of Science Education, Part B: Communication and Public Engagement. E-pub ahead of print, 7 pages. doi:10.1080/21548455.2016.1254358


  • Greiff, S., Wüstenberg, S., Goetz., T., Vainikainen, M.‐P., Hautamäki, J., & Bornstein M. (2015).  A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: Working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence. Frontiers in Psychology, 6 (1060). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01060
  • Ilmarinen, V.‐J., Vainikainen, M.‐P., Verkasalo, M., & Lönnqvist, J.‐E. (2015). Why are extraverts more popular? Oral fluency mediates the effect of extraversion on popularity in middle childhood. European Journal of Personality, 29 (2), 138-151. doi: 10.1002/per.1982
  • Hotulainen, R. & Telivuo, J. (2015). Epistemological Beliefs and Scientific Reasoning in Finnish Academic Upper Secondary Education. Kasvatus & Aika, 9(1), 92-106.
  • Nislin, M., Sajaniemi, N., Suhonen, E., Sims, M., Hotulainen, R., Hyttinen, S., & Hyttinen, A. (2015). Work Demands and Resources, Stress Regulation and Quality of Pedagogical Work Among Professionals in Finnish Early Childhood Education Settings. Journal of Early Childhood Education Research, 4(1), 42-66.
  • Niemi, P-M., & Hotulainen, R. (2015). Enhancing students’ sense of belonging through school celebrations: A study in Finnish lower-secondary schools. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 4(5), 1-16.
  • Thuneberg, H., Hautamäki, J., & Hotulainen, R. (2015). Scientific Reasoning, School Achievement and Gender: A Multilevel Study of between and within School Effects in Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 50(3), 337-356.
  • Thuneberg, H., & Vainikainen, M.‐P. (2015). Kolmiportaiseen tukeen liittyvät pedagogiset dokumentit uuden lain toteutumisen ilmentäjänä [Demonstrating the realisation of the renewed basic education act with documents related to three‐tiered support]. In M. Jahnukainen, E. Kontu, H. Thuneberg, & M.‐P. Vainikainen (Eds.) Erityisopetuksesta oppimisen ja koulunkäynnin tukeen [From special education to support for learning and schooling]. The Finnish Association for Educational Research.
  • Vainikainen, M‐P., & Ahtola, A. (2015). Tutkimustietoa konsultoivan koulupsykologityön vaikuttavuudesta [Evidence on the effectiveness of consultative psychological work in schools]. Psykologia, 50 (2), 129-140.
  • Vainikainen, M.‐P., Hautamäki, J., Hotulainen, R., & Kupiainen, S. (2015). General and specific thinking skills and schooling: Preparing the mind for new learning. Thinking skills and creativity. doi:10.1016/j.tsc.2015.04.006
  • Vainikainen, M.‐P., Thuneberg, H., Greiff, S., & Hautamäki, J. (2015). Multiprofessional collaboration in Finnish schools. International Journal of Educational Research, 72, 137–148.
  • Vainikainen, M.‐P., Thuneberg, H., & Mäkelä, T. (2015). Moniammatillinen yhteistyö lähikouluperiaatteen toteuttamisen tukena [Multiprofessional collaboration in supporting the local school principle]. In M. Jahnukainen, E. Kontu, H. Thuneberg, & M.‐P. Vainikainen (Eds.) Erityisopetuksesta oppimisen ja koulunkäynnin tukeen [From special education to support for learning and schooling]. The Finnish Association for Educational Research.
  • Vainikainen, M.‐P., Wüstenberg, S., Kupiainen, S., Hotulainen, R., & Hautamäki, J. (2015). Development of learning to learn skills in primary school. International Journal of Lifelong Learning. 34 (4) , 376-392. doi:10.1080/02601370.2015.1060025
  • Vainikainen, M.-P., Hienonen, N., Hautamäki, J., & Hotulainen, R. (2015). Tukea tarvitsevien oppilaiden ajattelutaitojen kehittyminen erikokoisissa luokissa [The effect of class size on the development of thinking skills of students with support needs]. NMI Bulletin, 25 (3), 36-51.
  • Vainikainen, M.-P., Salmi, H., & Thuneberg, H. (2015). Situational interest and learning in a science center mathematics exhibition. Journal of Research in STEM Education, 1 (1), 51-67.


  • Greiff, S., Wüstenberg, S., Csapó, B., Demetriou, A., Hautamäki, J., Graesser, A. C., & Martin, R. (2014). Domain-general problem solving skills and education in the 21st century. Educational Research Review, 13, 74-83.
  • Hautamäki, J. & Kupiainen, S. (2014). Kunta, koulu ja luokka seitsemäsluokkalaisten osaamiserojen selittäjänä [The effects of municipality, school and class in learning outcomes]. In Vainikainen, M-P. & Rimpelä, A. (Editors), Nuorten kehitysympäristö muutoksessa. Peruskoulujen oppimistulokset ja oppilaiden hyvinvointi eriytyvällä Helsingin seudulla. Tutkimuksia 364. Helsingin yliopisto: Opettajankoulutuslaitos.
  • Hotulainen, R., Thuneberg, H., Hautamäki, J., & Vainikainen, M-P. (2014). Measured Attention in Prolonged Over-Learned Response Tasks and its Correlation to High Level Scientific Reasoning and School Achievement. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 56(3), 237-254.
  • Hotulainen, R., & Hienonen, N. (2014). Esiopetusikäisille tarkoitettu ajattelun taitojen interventio-ohjelma. [Thinking skills Intervention program for preschool children]. NMI-bulletin, 24(2), 19-35.
  • Hotulainen, R., Sajaniemi, N. K., Suhonen, E. A., & Thuneberg, H. (2014). Changes and stability in daily cortisol values and their correlation to attention measured in a prolonged working task among Finnish six-year-old day-care children. Journal of child and adolescent behavior.
  • Hotulainen, R., Lappalainen, K., & Sointu, E. (2014). Lasten ja nuorten vahvuuksien tunnistaminen [Identifying the strengths of children and youht]. In L. Uusitalo-Malmivaara (Ed.) Positiivisen psykologian voima [Power of positive psychology] (pp. 264-280). Jyväskylä, Finland: PS-kustannus.
  • Hotulainen, R., & Takala, M. (2014). Parents’ Views on the Success of Integration of Students with Special Education Needs. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18(2), 140-154. 10.1080/13603116.2012.759630
  • Krkovic, K., Greiff, S., Kupiainen, S., Vainikainen, M.-P., & Hautamäki, J. (2014). Teacher evaluation of student ability: what roles do teacher gender, student gender, and their interaction play? Educational Research, 56, 243–256.
  • Kupiainen, S., Marjanen, J., Vainikainen, M‐P., & Hautamäki, J. (2014). Oppimaan oppiminen Vantaan toisen asteen oppilaitoksissa keväällä 2012 [Learning to learn in upper secondary education in Vantaa in spring 2012]. Vantaa: Vantaan kaupungin Sivistysvirasto [Education Department of the City of Vantaa].
  • Kupiainen, S., Vainikainen, M.P., Marjanen, J., & Hautamäki, J. (2014). The role of time on task in a low stakes assessment of cross-curricular skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106.
  • Sajaniemi, N., Suhonen, E., Hotulainen, R., Törmänen, M., Alijoki, A., Nislin, M., & Kontu, E. (2014). Demographic factors, temperament and the quality of the preschool environment as predictors of daily cortisol changes among Finnish six year old children. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 22(2), 286-306. 10.1080/1350293X.2013.783303
  • Suhonen, E., Sajaniemi, N., Alijoki, A., Hotulainen, R., Nislin, M., & Kontu, E. (2014). Lasten stressin säätely, reagointitaipumukset ja leikkikäyttäytyminen päiväkotiympäristössä [Children’s stress-regulation, reaction patterns and play behavior in day care]. Psykologia, 49(3), 184-197.
  • Thuneberg, H., Salmi, H., & Vainikainen, M‐P. (2014). Tiedenäyttely, motivaatio ja oppiminen. [Science exhibition, motivation, and learning]. Psykologia 49(6).
  • Thuneberg, H., Hautamäki, J., Ahtiainen, R., Lintuvuori, M, Vainikainen, M.-P., & Hilasvuori, T. (2014). Conceptual change in adopting the nationwide special education strategy in Finland. Journal of Educational Change, 15(1), 37-56. 9222-8.
  • Wustenberg, S., Stadler, M., Hautamäki, J. & Greiff, S. (2014). The Role of Strategy Knowledge for the Application of Strategies in Complex Problem Solving Tasks. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, DOI 10.1007/s10758-014


  • Thuneberg, H., Vainikainen, M.‐P., Ahtiainen, R., Lintuvuori, M., Salo, K., & Hautamäki, J. (2013). Education is special for all – the Finnish support model. Gemeinsam Leben, 21(2), 67‐78.


  • Hautamäki A., Hautamäki J. & Kupiainen S. Assessment in Schools – Learning to Learn. International Encyclopedia of Education (2010), vol. 3, pp. 268–272.
  • Scheinin P. (2006). Learning-to-learn assessment in Finland – versatile tools to monitor and improve effectiveness and equity of the education system. Teoksessa: Jakku-Sihvonen R. & Niemi H. (toim.) Research-based teacher education in Finland – reflections by Finnish teacher educators. Kasvatusalan tutkimuksia 25/2006, s. 189–202.
  • Hautamäki J., Arinen P., Eronen S., Hautamäki A., Kupiainen S., Lindblom B., Niemivirta M., Pakaslahti L., Rantanen P. & Scheinin P. (2002). Assessing Learning-to-Learn. A Framework. National Board of Education, Evaluation 4/2002.