INAR RI Ecosystems Activities

FinLTSER — Finnish Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research network

FinLTSER (Finnish Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research network) brings together the Finnish research sites and scientists that have conducted world-class research on long-term socio-ecological processes and problems into a coordinated Finnish research infrastructure, where the expertise and resources of both universities and main governmental research institutes are combined. These ecosystem research sites/platforms support, enhance and promote the inter-disciplinary investigation of long-term biodiversity and ecosystem processes at varying spatial and temporal scales. The long-term perspective helps to determine the impacts of drivers and pressures of environmental change and to investigate ecosystem processes and their response to environmental pressures. Finland is also intentionally stressing socioecological and socioeconomic research components in the national and international LT(S)ER networks.

Research themes

Research and monitoring themes within national and international LTER networks cover a wide spectrum of ecosystem studies:

  • Research and monitoring related to the LTER-Europe and ILTER core areas (global water circulation, biogeochemical processes, changes in biodiversity)
  • Other ecosystem processes and disturbances
  • Ecosystem services (e.g. photosynthesis, regulation of climate, soil health and soil fertility, insect pest control, forest and agricultural production, carbon assimilation, water resources, regeneration of habitats, recreation)
  • Societal and other socio-economic pressures on the functioning of the ecosystems (e.g. political decisions, land use)
  • Effects on the local communities of nature conservation and resource exploitation
  • Local environmental conflicts

Aims of FinLTSER

  • To provide a national infrastructure for long-term site-based ecosystem and biodiversity research in Finland, including climate change impacts, as a part of INAR RI Ecosystems
  • To provide the Finnish contribution to the European LTER-network (LTER-Europe). FinLTSER is also a part of the global international LTER-network (ILTER)
  • To collaborate with the international ESFRI-initiative ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observing system)
  • To become an attractive alternative for cooperation and visits by talented researchers from abroad
  • To facilitate stakeholder learning and education in all levels in the area of conservation and sustainable use of ecosystem services

FinLTSER network

The FinLTSER network was established in 2006 and consists of highly instrumented sites/research platforms, representing the main ecosystems (marine, terrestrial, lake, sub-arctic, urban) in Finland (see the map below). The FinLTSER sites are presented in DEIMS (LINKKI).

Figure. Sites belonging to FinLTSER network. These sites are potential future eLTER RI sites.

FinLTSER is closely related to INAR RI Ecosystems, and represented in the current Finnish Research Infrastructure Roadmap as part of INAR RI. The FinLTSER sites Hyytiälä and Pallas also belong to the international ICOS RI (Integrated Carbon Observation System, see also ICOS-Finland).

European dimension of FinLTSER FinLTSER is a part of international LTER-networks i.e. being a formal member both in the LTER-Europe (LINKKI) and International LTER (LINKKI) -networks. FinLTSER was formally accepted as a member network in ILTER and LTER-Europe at the ILTER meeting in Beijing 20-23 August 2007. The INAR RI Ecosystems/UH acts as coordination body of FinLTSER.

The environmental RIs are currently developing towards improved European scale coordination. LTER-Europe network is participating in this development through aiming for the European RI roadmap with eLTER RI. The eLTER RI proposal to the ESFRI roadmap was submitted in August 2017. If eLTER RI is accepted to the European roadmap, the preparations for an operative research infrastructure will start. FinLTSER aims to actively promote the roadmap process and participate the preparations.

AnaEE Finland — Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems

AnaEE (Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems) is a European-wide infrastructure for experimental research on managed and unmanaged terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. AnaEE assists and integrates four types of national platforms and provides support to European scientists who wish to engage in research projects using these platforms: Open-air platforms, Enclosed platforms, Analytical platforms, and Modelling platforms.

Finland participated in the AnaEE Preparatory Phase Project in 2012-2016. AnaEE is now in the pre-operational phase and preparing to become an ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). Finland has not yet joined in the Assembly of Members.

Aims of AnaEE Finland

AnaEE Finland would complement the European AnaEE RI by bringing in for example:

  • High-level experimental research station in boreal and sub-arctic region
  • experimental laboratories and analysing equipment
  • modelling platforms, wide-scale data and dataportals

AnaEE will cooperate with other research infrastructures, especially with eLTER, ICOS, ACTRIS, LifeWatch.

AnaEE Infrastructure in Finland

The potential AnaEE Finland infrastructure components include research stations, laboratories and field experiments hosted by University of Helsinki (UH), Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), University of Eastern Finland (UEF), University of Jyväskylä (JyU), Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), University of Oulu (UO), University of Turku (UTu) and Finnish Food Safety Authority (Evira) (see the map below).

Potential AnaEE sites according a preliminary survey done in February 2016.


Since 2017, there has been about 130 articles published in peer-reviewed journals. You can find a couple of example below and the whole publication list HERE (LINKKI).

Dewar, R., Mauranen, A., Mäkelä, A., Hölttä, T., Medlyn, B. & Vesala, T. 2018. New insights into the covariation of stomatal, mesophyll and hydraulic conductances from optimization models incorporating nonstomatal limitations to photosynthesis. New Phytologist. 217 (2) 571-585.

Jiskra, M., Sonke, J., Obrist, D., Bieser, J., Ebinghaus, R., Myhre, C., Aspmo Pfaffhuber, K., Wängberg, I., Kyllönen, K., Worthy, D., Martin, L., Labuschagne, C., Mkololo, T., Ramonet, M., Magand, O. & Dommergue, A. 2018. A vegetation control on seasonal variations in global atmospheric mercury. Nature Geoscience, 26 march 2018. DOI: 10.1038/s41561-018-0078-8.

Köster K., Köster K., Berninger F., Heinonsalo J. and Pumpanen J. 2018. Grazing by reindeer drives the three main greenhouse gas emissions from the subarctic boreal forest soils. Land Degradation and Development. doi: 10.1002/ldr.2868.

Matias, L., Linares, J.C, Sánchez-Miranda, A. & Jump, A.S. 2017. Contrasting growth forecast across the geographical range of Scots pine due to altitudinal and latitudinal differences in climatic sensitivity. Global Change Biology 23(10): 4106-4116. doi: 10.1111/gcb.13627.

Mustonen, K.-R., Mykrä, H., Marttila, H., Sarremejane, R., Veijalainen, N., Sippel, K., Muotka, T. & Hawkins, C.P. 2018. Thermal and hydrologic responses to climate change predict marked alterations in boreal stream invertebrate assemblages. Global Change Biology (in press).

Mäkiranta P., Laiho R., Mehtätalo L., Strakova P., Sormunen J. Minkkinen K., Penttilä T., Fritze H. & Tuittila, E-S. 2018. Responses of phenology and biomass production of boreal fens to climate warming under different water-table level regimes. Global Change Biology 24: 944–956.

Pulliainen J., Aurela M., Laurila T., Aalto T., Takala M., Salminen M., Kulmala M., Barr A., Heimann M., Lindroth A., Laaksonen A., Derksen C., Mäkelä A., Markkanen T., Lemmetyinen J., Susiluoto J., Dengel S., Mammarella I., Tuovinen J. & Vesala T. 2017. Early snowmelt significantly enhances boreal springtime carbon uptake. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114, 42, 11081-11086, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1707889114