The characteristics and distribution of populations living in urban areas define the long-term sustainability of urban centers and underlie decisions on many urban policies; such as construction, transport and provision of health-care and social services. The cluster for urban demography studies the interactions of people with urban physical and social geographical processes. Urban Demography is the study of population change of urban areas as a function of fertility, mortality, migration and the social forces the drive these processes. On the one hand, studying these multi-level or micro-macro processes will provide key evidence to understanding how the characteristics of urban areas and neighbourhoods affect individuals – for example how neighbourhood socioeconomic structure affects the well-being and health of residents. On the other hand, changes in population composition – driven for example by individual decisions to migrate or have children – affect urban areas and neighbourhood segregation.