Hönich, Henrik; Nagy, Ágoston; Pap, Milán: The state and its citizen in 19 th century political language of Hungary.

In our paper, we would like to analyze conceptually the basics of the idea of state and society in Hungary, giving an outline of the changes in the usage of basic political concepts from the late-Enlightenment, that is from the end of the 18 th century, to the end of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. We would like to present the first results of a three-year long research project on political language reform of the 19 th century Hungary. In this paper, we focus on the linguistic changes and conceptual innovations of “state” and its “citizen”. In the social and semantic relation of “state” and “citizen”, we found an interplay of democratic inclusion and national homogenization (eliminating the legal plurality of religions, local nationalities and the system of feudal hierarchies), as well as creating new political exclusions by class or ethnical differences. As we see it, acts of inclusion and exclusion, being mutually interdependent and determined by each other, are part of historical semantic processes. Especially in the case of social and political concepts, giving new meanings to existing words or creating new ones entail inevitably normative consequences, which not only implicate the incorporation and legitimatization of given sets of value-attributions and social- political loyalties, but also (at least implicitly) the exclusion of alternative versions of them. As we assume, the born, refining and re-figuration of Hungarian socio-political language proceeded in two main historical periods: firstly, with the translations of traditional Latin terms and the formation of neologisms of political and administrative concepts between 1790 and 1848; secondly, with the adaptation of Western (mainly German) concepts in political discourses and scholarly treatises between 1867 and 1918. Our historical sources are bi-lingual and mono-lingual dictionaries, as well as lexica and encyclopedias of the 19 th century. Lexica and encyclopedias as historical sources, according to our assumptions, would reveal an imprint of the development of political thinking and the basic structure of scientific and social knowledge. We intend to study relatively long and calm periods, i.e. the periods of historical-political reflections of Hungarian dictionaries as signifiers of the basic structure of political knowledge.