Escamilla-Castillo, Manuel: Tolerance and the sacred in the ancient world.

An intermediate point between the extremes of inclusion and exclusion is expressed by the idea of ​​tolerance. The studies on tolerance tend to start from the way in which it was raised at the beginning of Modernity, in the Renaissance, after first mentioning the importance of the Stoics in their formulation. From my point of view, however, we should start from an earlier moment because more important than the theoretical formulations are the general historical avatars in which these theories are inserted and with which they maintain relations of mutual shaping. It is in these avatars that we can detect its meaning. The vicissitudes of tolerance are linked to the formation of religion and its connection with the political organization of peoples. The present study intends to explore the starting point of this process of mutual shaping between the religious and the political as background to the idea of ​​tolerance. The identity of peoples is what distinguishes the individuals and groups that are included and excluded in them. In the European tradition, the religious identity of a people begins to form with a high level of intellectual development beginning with the Alliance between the people of Israel and Yahweh. The vicissitudes of the people of Israel, at the moment of their departure from Egypt and in their struggle for the maintenance of their own identity in their exile in Babylon and in the later diaspora forced on them by Titus and Vespasian make it possible to understand the functioning of the mechanisms of tolerance.